The skill of writing grew out of the early civilization’s quest for a way to communicate efficiently. Before the advent of a systematic scnpt, man used various ingenious techniques to make himself known. Monuments were, for instance, erected on graves not so much to glorify the dead but to perpetuate their memory. One of the commonest devices used by our forefathers to remind themselves of tasks to be performed was to tie knots in a handkerchief. The Ecuadorian Cara tribes put pebbles of different shapes colors and sizes in a small wooden box to record numbers or events. The Lu-tze on the Chinese Tibet frontier is believed to have at one time called their enemies to battle by dispatching a message in the form of pieces of chicken. Three pieces of chicken fat and chili all wrapped in red paper; the meaning of this message: “prepare to fight at once”
history while bronze pens appeared in the Roman period. Chinese and Japanese writings were however done with a small brush or a hair pencil. The quill, the English pen (Derived from the Latin word Penna meaning feathers), the French plume and the Germen feder were used by Europeans till as late as the first quarter of the 19th century. With the birth of writing, papyrus and the pen, appeared also the “writing ink. Ink, the term for any writing fluid, got its name from the old French word “Encaustum”. That name referred to encaustic wax painting but was applied to iron gall ink, presumably due to its caustic, eroding action on vellum made from calf skin.
patented by Werner in 1898 consisted of a solution of lamp black in castor oil. The main requirement for ball point pens are that the ink should be stable, it should not clog, it should flow freely when slight pressure is applied to the ball tip and when the ball rotates at the same time it should not leak. One of the most important requirements is that it should be absolutely free from any particles because the smallest particle may scratch the rotating ball, hindering ball rotation and thereby, either rendering the pen useless or giving a very bad writing. The ink is fed by a capillary tube through the clearance between the ball and its housing. It leaves a thin layer of ink on paper as the ball rotates. Since the ink film applied on paper is very thin, the ink has to be highly concentrated.