SMI Labels and Packaging Materials

Friday, August 23, 2019

History of Indian Label Industry Part 2C

Late Karan Khanna

The younger generation grew up to take charge while the founder promoters were ageing and stepping back to take up advisory roles. At this time, it will be appropriate to mention the important legendary persons who contributed to the establishment and growth of label industry and passed away in this period. Surinder Singh Arora of Amritsar Printing press had worked his way into the centre stage of an evolving label industry in India. He excelled not only in producing labels but also representing international companies like the Cham Paper group, Focus label machinery, etc. He expired on 20th April 2006. Another legend Kartar Singh Dunglay the founder and owner of Good Work Company New Delhi breathed his last in the intervening night of 7th and 8th of April 2013. He was 78 years of age. His was the first label company to partner with a European company to form a joint venture titled “Reydun” with Belgium based Reynders led by Mark Reynders. It is ironic that a year later, on the on 5th of April 2014 at the age of 75 years, another legend in the label industry Jagdish Zaveri breathed his last in Mumbai leaving the reigns of his business to his son Sandeep Zaveri. Amongst others who passed away during this period include Ramesh Doshi of Shanti Lal Doshi Pvt. Ltd., a company that pioneered the production of release papers and self-adhesive labelstocks in India and Karan Khanna young son of Prem Khanna of Rachna Overseas, in the prime of his youth, at a time when he was showing his calibre in taking over and growing the company established by his father. Karan passed away after a brief illness.

Priyata Raghavan
Indian label industry did not have many active businesswomen as managers. That started to change as the new millennium progressed, Indian women started acquiring technical and management skills to lead high levels of investments in the label industry which was registering high growth rate. It is an imperative to recognize the contribution of these women. Honey Vazirani was one of the earliest female managers in the Indian label industry. From being a management trainee in 1989, she rose to be the head of the labelling division of Thane based Paper Products Limited then referred to as PPL. This company was eventually acquired by Global flexible packaging major Huhtamaki and was renamed Huhtamaki-PPL. After spending over 25 years in the company Honey took a break and later started her own maiden venture Leap Digiprints with an HP Indigo digital label press to make digitally printed labels. Kusum Dunglay, wife of Kartar Singh Dunglay, an MBA from London University worked actively at the Dunglays’ venture Good Work Co. and led their foray into label manufacturing. After the death of her husband she carried the mantle of leadership with support of her son Rouble Dunglay. Amila Singhvi is another lady who grew her company International Print-O-Pack (IPP) from being a pre-press house to being leading offset printers and packaging manufacturers. She entered label manufacturing but with her package printing business growing multifold, she quit the narrow web label business to further grow IPP into one of the largest print packaging producers. Bharat Mehta of Super Labels Mumbai was one of the first few self-adhesive label printers in India. Super Labels attained growth with a silent support from Bharat Mehta’s wife Meena Mehta, a B. Sc chemistry. For over 20 years she was driving the organization through motivation, enthusiasm and participating in all decision making, even after their sons Dhaval and Darshan joined them. The company eventually became a joint venture with the world’s largest Label company CCL. Unfortunately, the relationship between the partners soured and the JV collapsed. Sandhya Shetty a graduate in Chemistry and Masters, in management Studies (Marketing), worked for 8 years in the field of business research and analysis. She worked on projects involving Government contracts, Defence sector in the US and in the hospitality sector in India. In 2008 at Labelexpo India she bought a Nilpeter to initiate her foray into labels as Synergy Packaging Pvt. Ltd. Shweta Sheth, an alumnus of Amherst, Massachusetts USA, was actively involved in the working of Primark labels, a part of the General Metallisers Group, as a director. Renuka Raj, an MBA from IIFT Delhi setup the first flexographic narrow web label printing company in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Completing her post-graduation course from IIM Lucknow, Priyata Raghavan joined the FMCG division of ITC Limited, before moving over to Sai Security Printers, a company owned by her father, Vijay Raghavan. Priyata has led the company’s label printing operations to profitability and an emphatic presence in the high-quality label segment. Other women who helped their spouses or families in business include Meenakshi Mittal wife of Trilok Mittal of Wonderpac and Neha Jain wife of Shakti Jain of Great Eastern IDtech.

Usage and growth of labels is directly linked to retail selling. Retailing in India is big part of Indian economy and accounts for about 10 percent of its GDP. Organised retail enhances the rates of growth in retail due to marketing efforts of brand owners to motivate consumers who reach out impulsively to lift products off the store shelfs at the spur of the moment. Time had come for rapid growth in organised retail, Government of India saw the potential and foresaw the fillip it would get by attracting foreign Direct investment or FDI, which was a major monetary source for economic development in India. Indian retailing industry, up to 2003 was limited to the local owner driven colony shops referred to as kirana stores. As the decade of 2000 progressed, larger format organised self-service stores started to surface in many areas of urban India and continued being set up until 2010. This was time for FDI, as investors around the world were eyeing this massive middle-class market to make substantial investments and acquire a sizeable share of it, but government disallowed FDI in multi-brand retail, forbidding foreign ownership in supermarkets, convenience stores or any retail outlets. Even single-brand retail was limited to 51% ownership. In November 2011 announcing reforms, FDI was allowed in retail however due intense political pressure it was put on hold a month later. In a series of moves in 2012, FDI was allowed in retail and global retailers became active in India. This is the time that started to witness an increase in label press installations across India and in all segments and categories of labels. As mentioned earlier organised retail spells enhanced need of labels bringing rapid growth to the labels industry.

International interest in the Indian label market started becoming an indulgence. In 2005 Belgium based Reynders set up a joint venture Reydunn at Manesar Gurgaon with Dunglays of Good Work Co. New Delhi. The partnership did not work out and in 2007-2008 they parted ways, but Reynders stayed on and started their wholly owned subsidiary at Chopanki near Bhiwadi in Rajasthan. Brady Corporation founded in 1914 in Wisconsin, USA, established their manufacturing unit in Bangalore in March 2006. In December 2007 Printcare PLC Srilanka established their wholly owned subsidiary in Coimbatore Tamilnadu titled Printcare India Private Limited specializing in designing and printing Teabag Tags, Teabag Envelopes and labels. Printcare India began its operations in June 2008. Around the same time Mikael Dahl of JV Nordvalls Sweden entered into a joint venture with Venu Ayyar of Laxmi Compugraphics. This venture also did not take off and was called off later in 2012. These happenings did not deter the international interest in investing in the large Indian market. In early February 2012 the industry was surprised to hear that Gururaj Ballarwad led Wintek Flexoprints based in Bangalore India, had been acquired by Hyderabad based ITW Signode, ITW India Ltd., a subsidiary of the multi-billion Dollar fortune 200 global industrial products company ITW is head quartered in Illinois, USA.

Just about two weeks later yet another European multinational label and packaging company Skanem invested in India's biggest label printers Interlabels, Mumbai. Headed by the brothers Bhavin and Gautam Kothari, Interlabels had been in the forefront of label industry. Bhavin Kothari has been one of the founders of LMAI (Label Manufacturers Association of India) and later the President of this association. In September 2012 Mumbai based Positive Packaging Industries Ltd. the flagship company of Enpee Group, an international conglomerate with over 50 years of business experience, acquired Bangalore based SGRE Labels Private Limited. Positive Packaging has been a pioneer in flexible packaging with state-of-the-art facilities located strategically in India, Nigeria and the U.A.E. Just another few weeks down, the news came that Mumbai based Webtech labels lead by Amar Chhajed and cousin Jitesh Chhajed is another leading label company that has been acquired by an internationally renowned company, Huhtamaki Oyj's subsidiary in India Huhtamaki-PPL. This is in line with the trend, that international label and packaging producing companies continue to consider India as their most important destination for market expansion. Amar Chhajed continued with Huhtamaki-PPL looking after the Webtech business and later designated as President of Huhtamaki’s Labelling business. Another 2 years on in 2014 Huhtamaki bought over Positive packaging which was largely a flexible business takeover but with it came the SGRE label business. Moving on in 2018 Huhtamaki acquired Chandan Khanna led Ajanta packaging firmly establishing itself as the largest label company in the country.  400 Crores out of their 2300 Crore turnover came from labels. Out the 400 Crores labels turnover 200 crores came from self-adhesive or PSA segment making them the undisputed leaders in the segment.

In February 2017, the world’s largest label printing company CCL announced their entry into India. CCL lead by Geoffrey T Martin and headquartered in Toronto Canada had 2015 revenues reported at 3 Billion USD and a total workforce in excess of 19000 employees, operating out of 150 state of art manufacturing facilities spread over North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia, Australia and Africa. CCL, through their Dubai based joint venture with Albwardy Group; Pacman-CCL, signed a binding agreement to acquire a majority stake in Mumbai based Super Labels. Unfortunately, this JV due to differences between partners and could not take off as envisaged.

Environmental concerns and sustainability have been matters of discussion at various industry forums, over the years they have become even more important. Almost forty years ago, when I was just a commercial siliconiser, people at large did not understand what release paper or silicon paper was. I would jokingly explain it was a product, a protective paper behind a sticker, that would eventually go into wastepaper basket. In real terms the release liner, would be disposed-off in landfills or burnt adding smoke and gasses to the environment impacting it adversely. Time has changed, concern for environment is a necessity and cannot be taken lightly as a joke. We are responsible for leaving behind a legacy of a cleaner and liveable environment for generations that follow us. We need to make our manufacturing programs, sustainable. Sustainability means giving back to mother earth what we take from it or reduce, drawing the resources that we cannot replenish forthwith and cut down generation of industrial waste. Unfortunately, 50% of all that self-adhesive label industry produces goes as waste in terms of waste matrix and release liners. While globally many endeavours are being adopted to reduce liner waste yet in India a lot needs to be done. Switching over to liner less labels where-ever possible, helps but not much work is done in this direction. Using thinner filmic liners does result in reduced tonnage of liners and their recyclability. During this period many a top-end printer had started using clear on clear filmic label materials aiding sustainability to some extent. Global leaders in Labelstocks Avery Dennison initiated a program to collect and recycle silicone release liners in India, a step in the right direction. But given the size of the country and geographical spread of label units, it is a gigantic task. Other than this some printers have adopted waste management by shredding waste and compacting it for use as fuel in boilers and other applications, this is only a miniscule portion of the Industry. Largely, the waste is still sent to landfills or is incinerated. In times to come legislation will come to make sustainability and environment safety an imperative. be continued to Part 2D

For complete previous history follow links below:

  1. “History of the Indian Label Industry” part-1: 
  2. “History of the Indian Label Industry part 2A:
  3. “History of the Indian Label Industry part 2C:

Written by Harveer Sahni Chairmanr Weldon Celloplast Limited New Delhi July 2019

Note: No one is authorised to reproduce, copy or reprint this article until permitted by the author in writing. 

Sunday, August 11, 2019

History of Indian Label Industry Part 2B

In 2006, I wrote the “History of Indian Label Industry” I have now written the 2nd part. This a brief report, I plan to write a book on the subject with a lot more expanded information in the near future. In a large country with industry spread over such a vast area and a huge population, it is difficult to chronicle all in few words. Being a long article, the part 2 of History of the Indian Label Industry is being posted on this blog in a series of four articles. The below is part 2B of the series the earlier ones can be accessed in this blog by clicking the links below;
“History of the Indian Label Industry” part-1: 

While the printed decorated and converted product label industry was evolving, in parallel, without making much noise another segment of the self-adhesive labels was growing steadily. These were the variable information labels, plain labels and intelligent labels. This segment was initially the mainstay of smaller label printers with lower capital investments in printing equipment. As demand grew, this segment started galloping by leaps and bounds to eventually surpass the prime label or product label segment in the number of square meters of labelstock used, though turnover wise it remained much lower due to low value addition. In the self-adhesive label industry, it became “the bigger segment”.

Initiation of variable information labels in India happened in early 1980s due to indulgence by P C
Jain of Great Eastern Impex. He brought to India price marking labellers and labels from Pitney Bowes USA and later started producing labels himself. Gun labels, as they subsequently came to be called because of the labellers which dispensed these labels look somewhat like guns, started to grow at a rapid pace. They were primarily used to dispense and affix price labels at point of purchase in retail stores and later also used for markings in garment manufacturing. Employees, associates and distributors of Great Eastern saw the market of these labels growing due to the nascent stage, the higher margins provided them enough temptation to breakaway and start their own label producing ventures. More so because the initial investment in equipment was not too high. Vinayak Sud of Liddles had also invested in this segment. With consumer protection laws becoming rigid, price marking labels were banned because prices were required to be printed on the packages or on the product labels affixed on them, this led to a slowdown in demand in this segment. By the onset of new millennium barcode usage had firmly commenced and in 2005 with establishment of GS1 standards, the market for plain labels transformed yet again to grow with introduction of barcodes. When inkjet and laser desktop printers started becoming affordable, important and necessary part of every home, office and factory, demand arose for self-adhesive labels in A4 format as well. These found usage in mailing, logistics and package identification. The variable label and plain label segment became identifiable and growing at a pace quicker than the overall industry rate.   With the advent of CDs becoming popular another segment of plain labels for CDs came around. People could create their own CDs, print labels created on home computers-printers and affix on the CDs. New Delhi based Rational Business Corporation and Mumbai headquartered Technova became major players in this segment. Without much change in their existing equipment their product offerings increased, and they could offer a range that included gun labels, barcode labels and plain labels. From just Great Eastern and Liddles at one time, others who initially involved themselves into this segment were Better labels in Chennai, Interlabels, Super Labels and Tayabi Tags in Mumbai. These were followed by Prakash labels Noida, Shipra Ghaziabad, Rachna Overseas Gurgaon, Dynamic Marking Delhi and a host of traders who not only setup label converting machines but also started to produce labelstocks themselves. After this the market grew phenomenally and hundreds of converters across the country jumped into this industry. This growth brought with it end user demands for innovative and technically advanced labels. Increased government regulations also brought in demand for statutory information with track and trace capabilities. The volumes these converters were converting became huge, with the likes of Prakash Labels alone converting close to a million square meters each month. Margins receded due to intense competition. To remain profitable most of these label producers also traded in accessories like Barcode printers, scanners, ribbons, ink rolls etc. needed for variable information label printing and dispensing at point of purchase. With modern day retail growing, demand for these labels escalated at close to 30% per annum.

Label industry segmentation changed, became more defined and closer to international estimates of
market shares. The total market of self-adhesive labels (printed and plain in roll and sheet) in India between 2005 to 2019 seemed to reach close to or more than a billion square meter mark. The share of different segments in the overall Indian Label industry in the author’s opinion and estimation is as below:
Variable Information Labels
Inkjet/Laser label                                        20%
Barcode TTR labels                                    17%
Direct Thermal product Labels                   10%
Dot Matrix or contact printed labels             5%
Prime Labels                                                40%
Others                                                            8%

Most of the plain labels were being converted on Indian made narrow web label presses. Notable amongst these press manufacturers are Multitec, Jandu, Webtech, RK, etc. The variable label segment undoubtedly brought growth even to these press suppliers who improved their equipment to be able to produce printed product labels of acceptable quality. This label segment that at one time was the lower end became voluminous. In terms of volume of labelstock usage, it became the “bigger segment”.

Around 2008 the Annunciation family owned Janus International had made a pioneering move into the world of digitally printed labels in India by investing in an HP Indigo label press. Though the initial days with this technology were extremely challenging due to high costs of equipment and consumables, yet it was agreed that the digital printing technology will persist and grow. Europe and USA were already witnessing the move from conventional to digital. Labelexpo 2009 was a perfect indicator towards a digital future for labels. 

Amar Chhajed of Webtech Labels set the example by investing in a Xeikon digital label press even though it appeared to be an investment made ahead of its time. By 2015 I had interviewed a lot of printers and came to conclusion, that digital will still have to wait some more, yet Amar Chhajed predicted that in another 2 or 3 years, digital printing in labels will start growing. His prediction was correct as in 2018 I wrote “The journey in digital has begun”. 22 high-end digital label presses had been installed in India and number started growing. A year on, the interest in digital printing of labels is gradually becoming an indulgence that is attracting increased investment at all levels.

During this period Indian label printers grew in size and numbers, they started spreading into interiors of India. An industry that originated in Mumbai and spread in the Metro cities in the 1990s and it was in the first decade of a new millennium that a lot started happening and industry started growing with installations of new presses in larger Tier 1 cities like Mumbai, New Delhi, Chennai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Bangalore. Kolkata a slow entrant also reported installations of Orthotecs. Later Debashish Sarkar of Classic Image Offset Kolkata lead the growth of labels in the eastern sector by installing Gallus label presses. Others who set up label manufacturing in the Eastern and north Eastern sector include Huhtamaki, Sai Com Codes, Holoflex, NAP printers, Insight Graphics, etc. Closer towards the second half of the 2000-2010 the label printers surfaced in the Tier 2 cities and the smaller Tier 3 cities, the trend carried on and labels were being produced in cities like Nagpur, Pune, Indore, Bhopal, Nasik, Rajkot, Surat, Baroda, Tirupur, Sivakasi, Madurai, Salem, Coimbatore, Manipal, Guwahati, Sikkim, Muzaffarnagar, Kanpur, Delhi NCR, Chandigarh, Baddi, Nalagarh, Paonta Sahib, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Jammu, Pathankot, etc. By end of the decade label printers were present across the length and breadth of India. At this time international press installations also started picking up in numbers. Indian agents of international press manufacturers saw the opportunity and shifted gears to sell aggressively and increase the international label press population. The most active seen were Sameer Patkar of Gallus, Gourav Roy of FIG for Mark Andy, Amit Sheth of Label Planet for Orthotec and Weigang, Pawandeep Sahni of Weldon for OMET, Manish Mehta of Reifenhauser for Bobst, Amitabh Luthra for Edale, Ranesh Bajaj of Vinsak for Lombardy, Vijay Pareek of Genius for MPS, Manish Kapoor led sales team of Nilpeter India and many others.
Leading Printers at Panel discussion in LMAI conference 2015
Hemanth-Pragati, Sanjeev-Zircon,Rajesh Chadha-Update, Harveer Sahni,
Arvind-Sai Security, Manjunath-Global pkg, Denver-Janus,
Chandan Khanna-Ajanta Pkg,  and Amar Chhajed-Webtech
Though it is difficult to list all, yet some of the printers across the nation who invested in multiple high-end European and American Label presses mentioned above included Ajanta Packaging Baddi and Daman, J K Fine prints Mumbai, Zircon Dehradun, Update Prints Delhi, Jain Transfer NOIDA, Holostik NOIDA, Pragati Pack Hyderabad, Mudrika Mumbai, Total Print Mumbai, Uflex NOIDA, Webtech Mumbai, Narain Offset Nagpur, Wintek Bangalore, Manipal Technologies Manipal, Syndicate Labels Delhi, Printmann Mumbai, Interlabels Mumbai, SelJegat Sivakasi, Sai Packaging Faridabad and Bangalore, Sai Comcodes Delhi, Renault Paper Products Palghar, Letra Graphix Ahmedabad, Kumar Labels Noida, Any Graphics Noida, Global Printing Packaging Bangalore, Uflex Noida, Barcom Mumbai and a lot of more printers who are single press owners. This period also saw established offset, package printing and flexible packaging printers also move into labels and some like Pragati Pack acquired wider presses like Omet Varyflex to also have capabilities for producing folding cartons on these flexo combination web presses. Others from the Offset printing segment who invested in narrow web label printing include Narain Offset in Nagpur, Printmann in Mumbai, Manohar Packaging Goa, Rajhans Bangalore Global Printing Packaging Bangalore, Arunodhaya in Hyderabad, Manipal Technologies Manipal, Noble printing Mumbai, Unipack New Delhi, Printrays in Jalandhar, Packtime Pune, Sonic Labels Mumbai and so many others.

3 Genarations: Late Hanumantha Paruchuri, his wife with sons
Narendra and Mahendra Paruchuri and Grandsons Harsha and Hemanth
“There is a fountain of youth; it is your mind, the talents, the creativity you bring to your life and the lives of people you love. When you learn to tap this source, you will truly have defeated age” These words came from the famous Italian actress Sophia Loren. So very true! As parents, when people witness their offsprings unfold the talents and creativity they have acquired as they grew up, there is a sense of fulfilment and satisfaction. Every parent strives hard in the given means to provide the best education and professional training to their children, so that they can stand up to the challenges of modern-day competitive living. In our Indian business society, the fathers or for that matter even mothers are natural mentors who guide the youth to eventually grow up to inherit the businesses that they painstakingly set up. It is a pleasure to see the children join you as trainees, gradually transform into managers, become business owners and eventually business leaders. Our label industry which originated in the seventies of the twentieth century, was witnessing a handing over of the baton to the next generation during the first two decades of new millennium. The way this generation moved out of the shadows of their mentors to evolve into professional managers who modernize, expand, systemize and lead the companies successfully to new arenas, is commendable.
Leading the group of generation next and taking over from his father Satish Pai was Gautham Pai, Managing Director of Manipal Press Limited later renamed Manipal Technologies Limited. Manipal Press was started with a single letterpress machine in 1941 and by 2010 had spread to over 600000 square feet with over 2000 employees and state of art machines. While Manipal Press was a predominantly a security and offset printing company yet Gautham lead the company’s foray into self-adhesive labels. They took into their fold Chennai based UPSL, set up label production also in Manipal and in Nigeria. In Sivakasi, Raveendran and his brothers at Seljegat started handing over the decision making to their sons Prashant, Mukundan and Sivanesh.  Gururaj Ballarwad of Wintek at Bangalore toiled hard to achieve a position of leadership for his company. Before Wintek being acquired by ITW he had somewhat handed over decision making to his sons Gopi and Girish both of whom later set up their venture Itekpak also in Bangalore. Vijay Raghavan of Sai Security Printers entrusted his business to elder son in law Arvind in the South and to his younger daughter Priyata in the North. Pramodh at Global Printing and Mahaveer at Mahaveer labels were other youthful leaders at Bangalore, designated to lead the label businesses of their companies. At Hyderabad, Pragati Offset has been a highly successful and celebrated offset printer who has invested extensively into self-adhesive labels. The charismatic Narendra Paruchuri has transformed the label business to levels comparable to the best in the industry. The shots are now called by his sons Hemanth and Harsha.
Surendra Kapur and son Himanshu Kapur

In Mumbai The Kapoors of Jaikaushal Industries and R K Papers fame Surendra Kapur and Jatinder Kapur had mentored their generation next comprising of Himanshu, Karan and Rahul to promote and take their new venture J K Fine prints to success.  The Khannas of Ajanta Printarts had let their scion Chandan Khanna to lead their journey into labels as Ajanta Packaging. Jagdish Zaveri of Total Print left it all to his soft-spoken son Sandeep Zaveri. 

Joe annunciation with sons Denver and Janus
Joe Annunciation at Janus International after three Gallus presses and an HP Indigo press almost retired as his sons Denver and Janus started delivering success.  The young brother and sister team of Santosh and Sandhya Shetty surprised all in the industry when they bought the brand new Nilpeter to announce their entry into self-adhesive labels in 2008. Rohit Mehta son of Ajay Mehta of SMI Coated papers mentioned earlier herein, was leading the company to global standards. In Aurangabad the feisty Ramesh Deshpande found time for social and industry issues because his son Hrishikesh was holding fort. In Ahmedabad it was Meet Pandya son of Bakul Pandya of NP Label, Nirav Shah nephew of Kamlesh Shah at Letragrafix.  Heading North, the author would not like to miss out on the own handing over the charge to sons Pawandeep and Kanwardeep. Pawan has been instrumental in changing the company from being a mere labelstocks producer to a total solution provider for the label printers. Jain Transfer and Monarch Graphics at Noida experienced the change with Rishabh, Parshav and Bhrigav; sons of brothers Sudhir Jain and Pavail taking charge of their respective businesses after separating amicably. Anuj Bhargav of Kumar Printers has gone it alone and maintained the trust of his mentors from day one. Kuldip Goel of Any Graphics has always had a passion to attain the ultimate in quality in labels, they moved into a brand new 100,000 square foot factory in 2009. He proudly says that most of the decisions have originated from ideas given by his son Naveen, including the further expansion to start building an even larger factory over a 15000 square Metres plot in 2019. Others who passed the baton to their next generation include P C Jain of Great Eastern to Shakti Jain, Prem Khanna of Rachna Overseas to Karan Khanna (a young son and entrepreneur who unfortunately passed away untimely), Ashok Nerkar of Unique Photo Offset to sons Gautam and Humbeer and many more such cases. The list of these youngsters is exhaustive. These young managers were like an aromatic fresh breeze blowing over the Indian Label Industry!

To be continued...

Previous parts of the article can be accessed at;
“History of the Indian Label Industry” part-1: 

Written by Harveer Sahni Chairman Weldon Celloplast Limited New Delhi July 2019

Note: No one is authorised to reproduce, copy or reprint this article until permitted by the author in writing.